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Hamlet Tretyakov
Hamlet Tretyakov

F.3.A.R. F.E.A.R. 3 FEAR 3


Previous studies demonstrated that DBA/2J (DBA) mice performed poorly while C57BL/6J (C57) mice performed normally on a number of complex learning and memory tasks. Chronic oxiracetam treatment dramatically improved the performance of DBA mice but not that of C57 mice on the Morris water task and in contextual fear conditioning. The present study demonstrates that acute treatment with nootropics, oxiracetam (10-1000 mg/kg) or aniracetam (10-100 mg/kg), and N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) antagonists, (+)-MK-801 (0.1-3 microg/kg), CPP (0.01-0.3 mg/kg), and (+)-HA-966 (0.1-3 mg/kg), administered prior to training and testing, reversed the contextual learning impairment in DBA mice in a dose-dependent manner without affecting auditory cue conditioning. These effects appeared to be independent of testing order (context vs. auditory cue tests) and were not due to state-dependent learning. The inactive stereoisomers, (-)-MK-801 and (-)-HA-966, were incapable of increasing contextual freezing in DBA mice. In DBA mice, the effects of 30 mg/kg oxiracetam and 100 mg/kg aniracetam were inhibited by the (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonists, NBQX, and GYKI-52466. The combined administration of 30 mg/kg oxiracetam and 1 microg/kg (+)-MK-801 produced an additive response. None of the pharmacological treatments altered performance in C57 mice at doses that were effective in DBA mice. These results suggest that DBA mice may be learning impaired due to altered glutamatergic receptor function.




F.3.A.R. F.E.A.R. 3 FEAR 3

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