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Ezekiel White
Ezekiel White

Make Money Lose Weight: And If You Think That These Two Issues Are Not Related, Think Again

Airlines don't guarantee their schedules, and you should realize this when planning your trip. There are many things that can-and often do-make it impossible for flights to arrive on time. Some of these problems, like bad weather, air traffic delays, and mechanical issues, are hard to predict and often beyond the airlines' control.

Make Money Lose Weight: And If You Think That These Two Issues Are Not Related, Think Again


If you encounter any of these symptoms, proceed cautiously. Ask for written information to be sent to you; any legitimate travel company will be happy to oblige. If they don't have a brochure, ask for a day or two to think it over; most bona fide deals that are good today will still be good two days from now. If they say no to both requests, this probably isn't the trip for you. Some other advice:

After an air accident, the National Transportation Safety Board always talks to survivors to try to learn why they were able to make it through safely. They've discovered that, as a rule, it does help to be prepared. Avoiding serious injury or surviving an air accident isn't just a matter of luck; it's also a matter of being informed and thinking ahead.

"It helps the urethral sphincter remain closed when abdominal pressure tries to open it. At least, we think that's how it works," he says. "We have only five-year outcomes on one group of these devices. But they look promising."

135. Certainly, these issues require constant attention and a concern for their ethical implications. A broad, responsible scientific and social debate needs to take place, one capable of considering all the available information and of calling things by their name. It sometimes happens that complete information is not put on the table; a selection is made on the basis of particular interests, be they politico-economic or ideological. This makes it difficult to reach a balanced and prudent judgement on different questions, one which takes into account all the pertinent variables. Discussions are needed in which all those directly or indirectly affected (farmers, consumers, civil authorities, scientists, seed producers, people living near fumigated fields, and others) can make known their problems and concerns, and have access to adequate and reliable information in order to make decisions for the common good, present and future. This is a complex environmental issue; it calls for a comprehensive approach which would require, at the very least, greater efforts to finance various lines of independent, interdisciplinary research capable of shedding new light on the problem.

160. What kind of world do we want to leave to those who come after us, to children who are now growing up? This question not only concerns the environment in isolation; the issue cannot be approached piecemeal. When we ask ourselves what kind of world we want to leave behind, we think in the first place of its general direction, its meaning and its values. Unless we struggle with these deeper issues, I do not believe that our concern for ecology will produce significant results. But if these issues are courageously faced, we are led inexorably to ask other pointed questions: What is the purpose of our life in this world? Why are we here? What is the goal of our work and all our efforts? What need does the earth have of us? It is no longer enough, then, simply to state that we should be concerned for future generations. We need to see that what is at stake is our own dignity. Leaving an inhabitable planet to future generations is, first and foremost, up to us. The issue is one which dramatically affects us, for it has to do with the ultimate meaning of our earthly sojourn.

164. Beginning in the middle of the last century and overcoming many difficulties, there has been a growing conviction that our planet is a homeland and that humanity is one people living in a common home. An interdependent world not only makes us more conscious of the negative effects of certain lifestyles and models of production and consumption which affect us all; more importantly, it motivates us to ensure that solutions are proposed from a global perspective, and not simply to defend the interests of a few countries. Interdependence obliges us to think of one world with a common plan. Yet the same ingenuity which has brought about enormous technological progress has so far proved incapable of finding effective ways of dealing with grave environmental and social problems worldwide. A global consensus is essential for confronting the deeper problems, which cannot be resolved by unilateral actions on the part of individual countries. Such a consensus could lead, for example, to planning a sustainable and diversified agriculture, developing renewable and less polluting forms of energy, encouraging a more efficient use of energy, promoting a better management of marine and forest resources, and ensuring universal access to drinking water.

189. Politics must not be subject to the economy, nor should the economy be subject to the dictates of an efficiency-driven paradigm of technocracy. Today, in view of the common good, there is urgent need for politics and economics to enter into a frank dialogue in the service of life, especially human life. Saving banks at any cost, making the public pay the price, foregoing a firm commitment to reviewing and reforming the entire system, only reaffirms the absolute power of a financial system, a power which has no future and will only give rise to new crises after a slow, costly and only apparent recovery. The financial crisis of 2007-08 provided an opportunity to develop a new economy, more attentive to ethical principles, and new ways of regulating speculative financial practices and virtual wealth. But the response to the crisis did not include rethinking the outdated criteria which continue to rule the world. Production is not always rational, and is usually tied to economic variables which assign to products a value that does not necessarily correspond to their real worth. This frequently leads to an overproduction of some commodities, with unnecessary impact on the environment and with negative results on regional economies.[133] The financial bubble also tends to be a productive bubble. The problem of the real economy is not confronted with vigour, yet it is the real economy which makes diversification and improvement in production possible, helps companies to function well, and enables small and medium businesses to develop and create employment.

212. We must not think that these efforts are not going to change the world. They benefit society, often unbeknown to us, for they call forth a goodness which, albeit unseen, inevitably tends to spread. Furthermore, such actions can restore our sense of self-esteem; they can enable us to live more fully and to feel that life on earth is worthwhile.

224. Sobriety and humility were not favourably regarded in the last century. And yet, when there is a general breakdown in the exercise of a certain virtue in personal and social life, it ends up causing a number of imbalances, including environmental ones. That is why it is no longer enough to speak only of the integrity of ecosystems. We have to dare to speak of the integrity of human life, of the need to promote and unify all the great values. Once we lose our humility, and become enthralled with the possibility of limitless mastery over everything, we inevitably end up harming society and the environment. It is not easy to promote this kind of healthy humility or happy sobriety when we consider ourselves autonomous, when we exclude God from our lives or replace him with our own ego, and think that our subjective feelings can define what is right and what is wrong.

If your doctor thinks that you suffer from depression, they may give you medicine to help you feel less tense. Or they may refer you to other experts. Don't feel that you should have to control these feelings on your own. Getting the help you need is important for your life and your health.

There are two reasons for this. The first is that you are too close to thecode. You may be looking for a particular aspect of the posts, or you aresimply too emotionally involved (e.g. confirmation bias). The second is thatyour time is too valuable. Consider the cost of nine engineers sitting in a onehour meeting, and think of how many contracted human labels that buys on acrowdsourcing platform.

FIRST MEETINGFriday, January 18, 2002Session 6: Human Cloning 3: Policy Issues and Research CloningDiscussion of Cloning Working Paper #4CHAIRMAN KASS: All right. We come to the last of the cloning sessions, and the last session before the public comment session, and this is a session devoted to policy considerations. Again, the working paper has been prepared not because it represents any even tentative view of this Council, but to stimulate discussion. There are lots of policy options for any of the matters that might come to our attention, and it would be very nice if one could have a de novo discussion of it. But once one embarked on the discussion of cloning, we discover that we do not start de novo, but we start in a world in which the policy discussion has been framed for us by legislative options. And it would be irresponsible of us to pretend that that was not the case, and therefore, in this case, even if this might be the unique case, we come at the policy questions in the light of the question of legislation. I think Frank Fukuyama said yesterday, and I agree with him, legislative bans are if ever useful, going to be rarely useful in these complicated areas. So, this might be an exception, but here we are. I would like to divide this session into two parts as the working paper has divided it. First, to look at the major legislative alternatives, and then, an initial discussion of research or therapeutic cloning, some scientific, moral, and policy questions. On neither of these topics, and we can say this with certainty in advance, are we going to get very far today. This is meant really to-- This whole meeting on cloning has been meant to sort of lay the table, and to get the parts of the discussion opened. Lots more work is going to have to be done on all of this. The relation between these two parts I would like to put my own personal spin on, although others can dissent from it. The moral and practical questions connected with research cloning are partly connected to the question of reproductive cloning, primarily because they come up in the context of legislative bans that have been proposed. That is an unavoidable fact of life. But the moral questions connected to cloning embryos for research are not that different from the moral questions of creating embryos for research by IVF or some other means. In other words, the ethical issues of the questions about therapeutic cloning are not that different from the scientific and medical issues, and ethical issues, connected with all embryo research. And it is somewhat uncomfortable, I think, to have to be thinking about the reproductive cloning question, and large questions of embryo research at the same time, but there is a confluence of the two subjects. So, we will not shortchange that subject at all, but I regard the major activity of this body to have been to take up the really novel thing, which is this new proposal, new mode of human baby-making. But we would be irresponsible to pretend that this other matter is not central to the debate, and we will, therefore, try to do it as responsibly as we can, though I hope that we do not have to at great length take up all aspects of embryo research, but people on the Council might think otherwise, and it may turn out to be not feasible to do so. But you will see that the question of research cloning comes up in the context of the policy considerations, rather than as a separate matter. Now, pertinent to this discussion, and I will start the policy discussion in a moment, I repeat, the National Academy of Sciences report is out, and so is the report from California, and I will see to it that we all have these materials within the week. And I think we will want to have people come to speak with us about that, and to indicate, I think, their view of how the discussions of the research cloning fit into the overall discussion that we are having here. So, it may be that this preliminary place of putting it in the context of policy may have to be amended, but the reason it is there I think I have articulated. All right. Part I, the legislative options, and the staff has laid out, in fact, the three options: no ban, a partial ban on reproductive only, and a ban on all cloning. Mindful of the kinds of arguments that Stephen Carter made about intruding government regulation, and especially legislative bans, we have taken up and made, I think, a series of good points in favor of a position which said there should be no legislative action whatsoever, summarized on page 2 and 3. But as Charles has pointed out, everybody in the House of Representatives was for some kind of ban or other, and therefore, it seems that at least if we want to think in the context in which we find ourselves, the real legislative alternatives are the ban on clonal reproduction only which would prohibit the attempt to initiate a pregnancy, or a ban on cloning in toto beginning with the creation of the embryonic clones. I do not think it is necessary to summarize the arguments here. I mean, you may like some of them, or not like them, but I think people have tried fairly, at least in this case, to state the positions that have been heard on various sides, and I would simply like to open the discussion with, I guess, one further comment. As I see it, the gist of the arguments are one: whether if you are seriously interested in stopping reproductive cloning, an attempt to do just that would be sufficiently effective. There is the effectiveness argument. There is on the other side an argument which says the ban on all human cloning is too costly in terms of what it would cost us in scientific and medical research. And the third point would be the moral argument having to do with the question of creating embryos solely for research, and with the added peculiarity in the law in which it would become a federal offense not to destroy them. That would be the novel wrinkle of the law which explicitly sanctioned the creation of embryos for research, and then made it a crime to implant them. I think those are the three major pieces of the discussion, but other of you may have other points, and I think the floor should just be open, and let it go where it will. Elizabeth, please. DR. BLACKBURN: I am going to confront right away the idea that you said perhaps in the last sentence or two. You said cloning for medical research. I think that misses an essential point. What is the point of the research? It is not for the self-indulgence of people who just like to, you know, putter around lab benches. It is truly to relieve human suffering. That really is the end goal of this, and I think we should not leave that out of sight. And I am actually concerned when I read the working paper. I am concerned that I felt a bias in the writing. There was the quotes "therapeutic"cloning. But there was never quotes around other words. You know, I just want to raise that, because I know you will say that, of course, these are only beginning working papers, and I am glad to hear that. But I just wanted to say since you did say today is about laying the table. CHAIRMAN KASS: Please. DR. BLACKBURN: The table was laid with some silverware that, you know, I am a bit concerned about, and that was the way this was written. So, I do want to hear when we talk about medical research, I think we should not uncouple it from its inextricable goal which is to try to relieve human suffering. CHAIRMAN KASS: Point not only well taken, but I think if it is in any way not made explicit here, it should be understood. I think to explain the quotes, by the way, the language has been much convoluted, and much argued afore, and we have put-- We did not know what right name to call this, and we put reproductive cloning in quotes, and we put research cloning in quotes, and I think the glossary there has been an attempt to try to indicate that there is a difficulty about the right language. The therapeutic intent is perfectly laid out in the discussion of the research cloning in that section, but I take your point completely. DR. BLACKBURN: Words carry freight with them, and research means something, I think, which does not always imply what I think in this context is very important to keep in mind, what is the research's goal. That was all I wanted to do. CHAIRMAN KASS: I mean, it has been very puzzling, Elizabeth, that at the very beginning of these debates in Congress, the proponents of therapeutic cloning, we will call it, were very eager to have the word "therapeutic" cloning used. But now many of those people have retracted from that term because they like the presence of the term "cloning" less than they like the benefit that is gained from calling it "therapeutic". And we need, I think, to sort this out amongst ourselves. But let me not belabor it. I take your point completely. Where were we? Jim, Robby-- DR. WILSON: I need help from the scientists here, because I am uninitiated with respect to what we now choose for the moment to call therapeutic cloning. On page 3 it says a ban on clonal reproduction only would begin with a ban on an attempt to start a pregnancy by banning the transfer to a woman's uterus of a cloned human embryo. And it suggests that therapeutic cloning, or whichever you wish to call it, can be done entirely in a petri dish. That is to say that a woman's uterus is nowhere necessary. It also leaves the question open-- And is that true? I want to make sure I understand the facts. Secondly, how long does the fertilized egg have to grow before it can produce cells useful in therapy? Or do we know the answer to the question? CHAIRMAN KASS: We know the answer to that. They grow to the blastocyst stage, at least with respect to the stem cell kind of research that people want to do. It grows to the blastocyst stage, a couple of hundred cells, age about four to five days. DR. WILSON: It would be nice to have these things recorded here, because those of us-- (Simultaneous discussion.) DR. HURLBUT: I am sorry. I am not quite sure what the question is. DR. BLACKBURN: Oh, I was hoping Bill could say something addressing the issue-- (Simultaneous discussion.) DR. WILSON: --how long a fertilized egg has to grow before it becomes useful for therapeutic or regenerative purposes. DR. HURLBUT: Just what Leon said, the blastocyst stage. They take the inner cell mass, which is the part that will become the embryo, and that forms around four to five days. It is usually put into the woman's womb five to six days, and implants approximately six days in humans. Much later, by the way, in cattle, which is why some of the studies done with cattle do not parallel with the stage in humans. DR. WILSON: But it is transferred into a woman's womb, uterus? DR. HURLBUT: It


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